There are 13 major sea ports in India. Along with this there are 200 medium and several minor sea ports in India. These 13 major sea ports handle about 95 % of total volume and 70 % by value of total international trade.
All these 13 major sea ports are either located on Western coast or Eastern coast.
Western Coast Sea Ports : – Mumbai, JNPT, Kandla, Cochin, Manglore, Mormugao
Eastern Coast Sea Ports : – Kolkata, Vishakhapatnam, Paradeep, Chennai, Tuticorin and Ennore
Port Blair is located in Andaman and Nicobar islands.
1. Kandla Sea Port in Kuchchh : –
This sea port is in Gujarat. This sea port was developed after independence because at that time Karachi Sea Port became part of Pakistan. So the volume of trade on Mumbai Sea Port increased very much. So Kandla Sea Port was made to lower the volume of trade on Mumbai Sea Port. Imports and exports of northern states like Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat are handled by this sea port.
2. Mumbai Sea Port : –
This is the biggest sea port. And this is natural harbour. This sea port is well harboured.
3. Jawaharlal Nehru Sea Port : –
This sea port was made to decongest Mumbai Sea Port and is serving as hub port of this region. This sea port is also known as Nhava Sheva. It is the largest container port in India.
4. Mormugao Sea Port : –
This sea port is located in Goa. This sea port is famous for iron ore export. Nearly 50% of India’s iron ore is exported from this sea port.
5. New Manglore Sea Port : –
This sea port is located in Karnataka. Iron ore is exported from this sea port which is brought from Kudremukh mines. This port is located at Gurupura river confluence with Arabian Sea.
6. Kochchi Sea Port : –
This sea port is located in Gujarat. This is the extreme south western port. This is a natural harbour.
7. Tuticorin Sea Port : –
This sea port is located in south eastern part. This sea port has a natural harbour and has rich hinterland. From here cargoes to Sri Lanka, Maldives, etc and coastal regions of India. The latest name of Tuticorin Sea Port is V.O.Chidambaranar Port. This sea port is located in Gulf of Mannar.
8. Chennai Sea Port : –
This is the oldest artificial sea port and next to Mumbai in terms of trade and cargo. This is the second largest port of India. In east coast this is the largest sea port.
9. Vishakhapatnam Sea Port : –
This is the deepest landlocked sea port. This sea port is well protected. Originally this sea port was used as outlet of iron ore export. This sea port is located in Andhra Pradesh.
10. Paradwip Sea Port : –
This sea port is in Odissa. This sea port is for iron ore export. It was the first major port in the East Coast. This port is located at the confluence of Mahanadi river.
11. Kolkata Sea Port : –
This is an inland riverine port. This is the only riverine port in India. This sea port serves a very large and rich hinterland of Ganga Brahmputra basin. This is a tidal port so it requires constant dredging of Hoogly. It is known for twin dock systems.
12. Haldia Sea Port : –
This sea port was made to relieve growing pressure on Kolkata Port.
13. Cochin Sea Port : –
This sea port is located on the Willington island.
Following are some important questions ( FAQ ) related to major sea ports in India : –
Ques – What is the difference between major ports and minor ports ?
Ans – There is no special difference between major sea ports and minor sea ports. All ports of India have been classified as major and minor ports only for administrative purposes.
Ans – Maritime transport falls under concurrent list of Indian Constitution. So any decision related to maritime transport has to be taken by both the central and the state government.